Khaled bin Mohamed Al-Aboudi received a bachelor's degree in economics from King Saud University in Riyadh in 1982. In 1987, he received a master's degree in economics from Northeastern University in Washington, USA.
He worked in the Ministry of Finance and National Economy in 1982 until he became the Acting Director of the International Financial Institutions Department. In 1995, he served as Assistant Executive Director of the World Bank Group in Washington, D.C., and in 1997 he was a Duty Executive Director of KSA at the World Bank Group in Washington DC . In 2000, he was appointed as Senior Economist in the Public Investment Fund of the Ministry of Finance and National Economy. In 2001 he was appointed as Deputy Director General of the Islamic corporation for the Development of the Private Sector in the Islamic Development Bank Group in Jeddah.
He is also chairman of several boards of directors of local and international banks and companies, and a member of the board of directors of several companies and banks as well.
Since early February 2018, he has worked as a managing director of the Saudi Agricultural and Livestock Investment Company (SALIC).